Prediabetes

What is prediabetes, and whose person is caring to know about it?

His father is diabetic and hypertensive

His grandmother is diabetic

He is afraid of falling down in a coma one day and then discovers that he has diabetes for a long time.

When and how to discover diabetes early in the prediabetes stage?

What is the prediabetes glucose level? and what foods to be avoided at this time?

Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM)

Diabetes is diagnosed by the combination of history, examination, and investigations.

History

  • Positive family history for DM.
  • Complaints that are indicating high blood sugar level, for instance, increased urination and thirst.
  • Symptoms related to complications, such as repeated skin infections and loss of teeth.

Examination

Manifestations of increased glucose level as well as its complications, for example, dehydration and abscesses.

Investigations

  • Fasting blood glucose level. It should be 70-99 mg/dl, i.e.: less than 100 mg/dl.
  • Two hours after-meal blood glucose level. It shouldn’t exceed 180 mg/dl.
  • Fat profile in the blood. It includes serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, the good and bad cholesterol.
  • Detection of the blood acidity by analysis of the blood gases.
  • Investigations related to complications, such as acidosis and stroke.

Prediabetes glucose level

It diagnoses the state of pre-diabetes, which means that the blood level of glucose is higher than normal, but not reaching the diabetes level yet.

 The prediabetes phase indicates that the patient has a low tolerance to glucose, and is at high risk to develop DM.

The prediabetes blood sugar ranges between 100-128 mg/dl.

It doesn’t mean that the person is having obvious manifestations suggestive of DM, but the test is done for screening of DM among at-risk people most of the time.

Sometimes it is detected accidentally upon regular check-up or routine investigations before surgery.

What are the risk factors?

Prediabetes usually state precedes type 2 DM, so they have the same risk factors such as:

  • Age: more than 45 years.
  • Being overweight or obese with accumulation of fat around the abdomen.
  • Drinking sugary juices and a lot of sweets and processed foods.
  • A high blood level of blood fat, cholesterol, and triglycerides.
  • Sedentary life.
  • Being hyperglycemic during a previous pregnancy, that’s to say gestational diabetes.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.

What are the manifestations?

  • Drinking and urinating more than usual.
  • The sensation of weakness and fatigue.
  • Blurred vision.

What to do if diagnosed as having prediabetes?

Prediabetes state is not indicating starting treatment with insulin or glucose-lowering medications but means to do some preventive strategies to postpone DM as possible.

Management

There are some measures to reverse the prediabetes state, for example:

  • Adopting a healthy diet system with plenty of legumes, grains, and fruits.
  • Practicing exercise.
  • Optimizing of body weight.
  • Control the blood pressure to be normal.
  • Cessation of smoking.
  • May the physician recommend starting metformin which is an oral antidiabetic medication.

Then, what about the diet modifications needed for prediabetic persons?

Prediabetes foods to avoid

  • Sugary fluids, canned juices, and sweetened fruit juices.
  • White flour such as white bread, baking from white flour.
  • Processed food like fried potatoes and breakfast cereals.
  • Avoid processed as well as red meat.
  • Prohibit harmful fat like hydrogenated oils, margarine, and fried foods.

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